Orphan opioid. Science 03 Nov 1995: Vol. 270, Issue 5237, pp. 713. DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5237.713f. Article · Info & Metrics · eLetters. Loading. Science: 270 (5237) …
Although studies indicate that the opioid system controls mood-related processes and social behaviors, whether and how stressful childhood experiences impact the opioid system to increase risk for psychopathology and suicide remain unknown. Because epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, are implicated as the …
Opioid Receptor Mechanism. Gianluigi Tanda, Francesco E. Pontieri,* Gaetano Di Chiara†. The effects of the active ingredient of Cannabis, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), and of the highly addictive drug heroin on in vivo dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens were compared in Sprague-Dawley rats by brain …
Individuals homozygous for themet158 allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism (val158met) showed diminished regional μ-opioid system responses to pain compared with heterozygotes. These effects were accompanied by higher sensory and affective ratings of pain and a more negative internal …
Treatment of rats with a 5-HT4 receptor–specific agonist overcame fentanyl-induced respiratory depression and reestablished stable respiratory rhythm without loss of fentanyl’s analgesic effect. These findings imply the prospect of a fine-tuned recovery from opioid-induced respiratory depression, through adjustment of …
The transcript for proenkephalin A, which can be cleaved to produce various bioactive peptides, including those acting on opioid receptors, and various proenkephalin A–derived peptide fragments were abundant in SCH cells. Secretion of the stress-responsive hormone glucocorticoid is circadian, and female, but not male, …
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The Mice That Don’t Miss Mom: Love and the μ-Opioid Receptor. Mary Beckman*. Mary Beckman is a writer based in southeastern Idaho. See allHide authors and affiliations. Science 25 Jun 2004: Vol. 304, Issue 5679, pp. 1888-1889. DOI: 10.1126/science.304.5679.1888a. Mary Beckman. Mary Beckman is a writer based …
Abstract. Subcutaneous injections of naloxone, an opiate antagonist, lead to an increase in serum luteinizing hormone concentrations in female but not in male rats before they reach puberty. In addition, estradiol benzoate specifically blocks the luteinizing hormone response to naloxone in prepubertal female rats, …
Figure 2. (A), (C), and (E) show the effects of ABT-594 (squares), (−)−nicotine (circles), and morphine (triangles) in preclinical models of acute, persistent, and neuropathic pain. All compounds were administered ip. Each compound was tested independently, but for graphical presentation, control (that is, saline-treated …
Synthesizing the opioid peptides. See allHide authors and affiliations. Science 22 Apr 1983: Vol. 220, Issue 4595, pp. 395-397. DOI: 10.1126/science.6836282. JL Marx. Find this author on Google Scholar · Find this author on PubMed · Search for this author on this site · Article; Info & Metrics; eLetters; PDF. Loading.
Summary: Widowers and life-long single people are at higher risk of developing dementia, a new study reports.
Marriage may lower the risk of developing dementia, concludes a synthesis of the available evidence published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.
Lifelong singletons and widowers are at heightened risk of developing the disease, the findings indicate, although single status may no longer be quite the health hazard it once seemed to be, the researchers acknowledge.
They base their findings on data from 15 relevant studies published up to the end of 2016. These looked at the potential role of marital status on dementia risk, and involved more than 800,000 participants from Europe, North and South America, and Asia.
Married people accounted for between 28 and 80 per cent of people in the included studies; the widowed made up between around 8 and 48 per cent; the divorced between 0 and 16 per cent; and lifelong singletons between 0 and 32.5 per cent.
Pooled analysis of the data showed that compared with those who were married, lifelong singletons were 42 per cent more likely to develop dementia, after taking account of age and sex.
Part of this risk might be explained by poorer physical health among lifelong single people, suggest the researchers.
However, the most recent studies, which included people born after 1927, indicated a risk of 24 per cent, which suggests that this may have lessened over time, although it is not clear why, say the researchers.
The widowed were 20 per cent more likely to develop dementia than married people, although the strength of this association was somewhat weakened when educational attainment was factored in.
But bereavement is likely to boost stress levels, which have been associated with impaired nerve signalling and cognitive abilities, the researchers note.
No such associations were found for those who had divorced their partners, although this may partly be down to the smaller numbers of people of this status included in the studies, the researchers point out.
But the lower risk among married people persisted even after further more detailed analysis, which, the researchers suggest, reflects “the robustness of the findings.”
These findings are based on observational studies so no firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn, and the researchers point to several caveats, including the design of some of the included studies, and the lack of information on the duration of widowhood or divorce.
Nevertheless, they proffer several explanations for the associations they found. Marriage may help both partners to have healthier lifestyles, including exercising more, eating a healthy diet, and smoking and drinking less, all of which have been associated with lower risk of dementia.
Couples may also have more opportunities for social engagement than single people–a factor that has been linked to better health and lower dementia risk, they suggest.
In a linked editorial, Christopher Chen and Vincent Mok, of, respectively, the National University of Singapore and the Chinese University of Hong Kong, suggest that should marital status be added to the list of modifiable risk factors for dementia, “the challenge remains as to how these observations can be translated into effective means of dementia prevention.”
The discovery of potentially modifiable risk factors doesn’t mean that dementia can easily be prevented, they emphasise.
“Therefore, ways of destigmatising dementia and producing dementia-friendly communities more accepting and embracing of the kinds of disruptions that dementia can produce should progress alongside biomedical and public health programmes,” they conclude.
Source: Caroline White – BMJ
Publisher: Organized by NeuroscienceNews.com.
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Original Research: Full open access research for “Marriage and risk of dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies” by Andrew Sommerlad, Joshua Ruegger, Archana Singh-Manoux, Glyn Lewis, and Gill Livingston in Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. Published online November 27 2017 doi:10/30/jnnp-2017-316274
Marriage and risk of dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Background Being married is associated with healthier lifestyle behaviours and lower mortality and may reduce risk for dementia due to life-course factors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the association between marital status and the risk of developing dementia.
Methods We searched medical databases and contacted experts in the field for relevant studies reporting the relationship, adjusted for age and sex, between marital status and dementia. We rated methodological quality and conducted random-effects meta-analyses to summarise relative risks of being widowed, divorced or lifelong single, compared with being married. Secondary stratified analyses with meta-regression examined the impact of clinical and social context and study methodology on findings.
Results We included 15 studies with 812 047 participants. Compared with those who are married, lifelong single (relative risk=1.42 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.90)) and widowed (1.20 (1.02 to 1.41)) people have elevated risk of dementia. We did not find an association in divorced people.
Further analyses showed that less education partially confounds the risk in widowhood and worse physical health the elevated risk in lifelong single people. Compared with studies that used clinical registers for ascertaining dementia diagnoses, those which clinically examined all participants found higher risk for being unmarried.
Conclusions Being married is associated with reduced risk of dementia than widowed and lifelong single people, who are also underdiagnosed in routine clinical practice. Dementia prevention in unmarried people should focus on education and physical health and should consider the possible effect of social engagement as a modifiable risk factor.
“Marriage and risk of dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies” by Andrew Sommerlad, Joshua Ruegger, Archana Singh-Manoux, Glyn Lewis, and Gill Livingston in Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. Published online November 27 2017 doi:10/30/jnnp-2017-316274
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As I watched with my 21-yr old daughter the show “The Bachelor”, I realized that she is learning about dating and relationships from the show.
So, I quickly gave my short advice at each commercial. She is so engrossed at the beautiful settings and drama and tried to absorb every word uttered by the cast.
I know that as her mother, I can only speak about my experiences and what I believed is the reality.
How many women are watching “The Bachelor” and in some ways impacting their lives, in dreams or in reality?
I told my daughter that at times, women choose with her brain and at times with her feelings at the moment and then, she wakes up in the realization that what she wanted is real happiness and not short term happiness.
I like that the Bachelorette is a lawyer and like most women, with education or not, knows that feelings some times clutter our minds and affect how we make the right decisions.
She is articulate but when it comes to removing the obvious with what matter most, like many women we are affected by the candy in front of us.
So I told my daugther that in real life, one must be true to her principles and that the true prince charming will offer valuable gifts and make an effort to show his love and as a true measure of his love.
Happy Chocolates day! Chocolates are number one gift sought after by lovers and women. Men who eats chocolates are calmer than those who do not (this one is my opinion).
Here are some nutrients and benefits of chocolates (may be attributed to the magnesium content):
- Protection from Disease-Causing Free Radicals.
- Potential Cancer Prevention.
- Improved Heart Health.
- Good for Overall Cholesterol Profile.
- Better Cognitive Function.
- Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar Aid.
- Antioxidant-Rich Superfood
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Summary: According to researchers, the emotional experiences of those close to death are both more positive and less negative than most people believe.
Fear of death is a fundamental part of the human experience–we dread the possibility of pain and suffering and we worry that we’ll face the end alone. Although thinking about dying can cause considerable angst, new research suggests that the actual emotional experiences of the dying are both more positive and less negative than people expect.
The findings are published in Psychological Science.
“When we imagine our emotions as we approach death, we think mostly of sadness and terror,” says psychological scientist Kurt Gray of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “But it turns out, dying is less sad and terrifying–and happier–than you think.”
The research, which examined the writings of terminally ill patients and inmates on death row, suggests that we focus disproportionately on the negative emotions caused by dying, without considering the broader context of everyday life.
“Humans are incredibly adaptive – both physically and emotionally–and we go about our daily lives whether we’re dying or not,” Gray explains. “In our imagination, dying is lonely and meaningless, but the final blog posts of terminally ill patients and the last words of death row inmates are filled with love, social connection, and meaning.”
The positive emotions that come with this kind of meaning-making were exquisitely displayed in a recent Modern Love column, written by beloved children’s author Amy Krouse Rosenthal. Rosenthal, who died of ovarian cancer 10 days after her column was published in The New York Times, wrote with profound love and humor about finding someone to marry her husband after she died.
“The column was so touching because it was so positive, so filled with love and hope,” says Gray. “While such positivity seems strange in someone so near death, our work shows that it is actually fairly typical.”
Gray, his graduate student Amelia Goranson, and their co-authors Ryan Ritter, Adam Watyz, and Michael Norton started thinking about the emotional experience of dying when they came across the last words of death-row inmates in Texas, collected by the state’s Department of Justice. They were surprised by how upbeat the statements were, and wondered whether our feelings about death and dying might be clouded by our tendency to zero in on negative experiences.
In their first study, Gray and colleagues analyzed the emotional content of blog posts from terminally ill patients who were dying of either cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To be included in the study, the blogs had to have at least 10 posts over at least 3 months and the author had to have died in the course of writing the blog. For comparison, the researchers asked a group of online participants to imagine that they had been diagnosed with terminal cancer and to write a blog post, keeping in mind that they only a few months to live.
Using a computer-based algorithm, trained research assistant coders, and online participant coders, the researchers analyzed the actual and imagined blog posts for words that described negative and positive emotions, such as “fear,” “terror,” “anxiety,” “happiness,” and “love.”
The results revealed that blog posts from individuals who were terminally ill included considerably more positive emotion words and fewer negative emotion words than did those written by participants who simply imagined they were dying.
Looking at the patients’ blog posts over time, the researchers also found that their use of positive emotion words actually increased as they neared death, while their use of negative emotion words did not. These patterns held even after Gray and colleagues took the overall word count and number of blog posts into account, suggesting that the increase in positive emotion words was not simply due to the effects of writing over time.
In a second study, the researchers conducted similar analyses comparing the last words of inmates on death row with the poetry of death-row inmates and the imagined last words of another group of online participants.
Again, they found that the words of those who were actually close to death were less negative and more positive in emotional tone than the words of those who were not close to death.
Both the terminally ill patients and the inmates facing execution seemed to focus on things that help us make meaning of life, including religion and family, suggesting that such things may help to quell anxiety about death as it approaches.
Gray and his co-authors acknowledge that the findings may not apply to all people who are approaching death – it’s unclear whether individuals facing a great deal of uncertainty or those who die of old age express similarly positive emotions near the end of life.
Ultimately, the findings suggest that our expectations may not match the reality of dying, which has important implications for how we treat people who are dying.
“Currently, the medical system is geared toward avoiding death–an avoidance that is often motivated by views of death as terrible and tragic,” the researchers write in their paper. “This focus is understandable given cultural narratives of death’s negativity, but our results suggest that death is more positive than people expect: Meeting the grim reaper may not be as grim as it seems.”
Co-authors on the research include Amelia Goranson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Ryan Ritter of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Adam Waytz of the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, and Michael I. Norton of Harvard Business School.
All materials have been made publicly available via Dataverse and the complete Open Practices Disclosure for this article is available online. This article has received the badge for Open Materials.
Funding: A. Goranson is funded by a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship. K. Gray is supported by the Templeton Foundation-funded Immortality Project (S-000607), the Russell Sage Foundation (93-16-08), and the Charles Koch Foundation.
Source: Anna Mikulak – APS
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Dying Is Unexpectedly Positive” by Amelia Goranson, Ryan S. Ritter, Adam Waytz, Michael I. Norton, and Kurt Gray in Psychological Science. Published online June 1 2017 doi:10.1177/0956797617701186
Dying Is Unexpectedly Positive
In people’s imagination, dying seems dreadful; however, these perceptions may not reflect reality. In two studies, we compared the affective experience of people facing imminent death with that of people imagining imminent death. Study 1 revealed that blog posts of near-death patients with cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were more positive and less negative than the simulated blog posts of nonpatients—and also that the patients’ blog posts became more positive as death neared. Study 2 revealed that the last words of death-row inmates were more positive and less negative than the simulated last words of noninmates—and also that these last words were less negative than poetry written by death-row inmates. Together, these results suggest that the experience of dying—even because of terminal illness or execution—may be more pleasant than one imagines.
“Dying Is Unexpectedly Positive” by Amelia Goranson, Ryan S. Ritter, Adam Waytz, Michael I. Norton, and Kurt Gray in Psychological Science. Published online June 1 2017 doi:10.1177/0956797617701186