How sodium controls opioid brain signaling

SCIENTISTS SOLVE 40-YEAR MYSTERY OF HOW SODIUM CONTROLS OPIOID BRAIN SIGNALING

Researchers discover how sodium influences the signalling of opioid receptors. READ MORE…

Cabbage family has chlorine for brain and stomach cleansing

CABBAGE.JPGCHLORINE – A FEMALE, OXIDIZING AGENT ELEMENT

by Dr. Lawrence Wilson

Chlorine is a light element and a very important one for fluid balance, production of HCl in the stomach, and the operation of the pituitary gland, as well.  It has a valence of +1.  However, chlorine in most forms is extremely toxic for the body.  It can cause heart disease, cancer, and symptoms such as vaginal dryness in women.  A complete nutritional balancing program is one of the few ways to remove a lot of toxic chlorine compounds from the body quickly.

Chlorine the messenger and purifier element

            Chlorine is an acid-forming, female element that relays messages to the body from hydrogen, the primordial element of the universe.  As such, one may call chlorine the messenger element.  Chlorine is also a cleanser and a purifying element, and this is also part of its messenger mission, one could say.

            Chlorine, a female element, and quite an advanced one, works closely with two important male elements, sodium and potassium.  When combined, it forms sodium chloride and potassium chloride, two important chemicals in our blood without which we cannot live.  These compounds help regulate the balance or amount of all the major fluids in the blood and, indeed, in the entire body.

 FOOD SOURCES OF AVAILABLE CHLORINE

 We obtain chlorine from most foods, and from water supplies.  Foods very high in chlorine are the cabbage family of vegetables – cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts.  Also, the radish family, nightshade family (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant and peppers), although I do not recommend these as they contain an irritating toxin called solanin.  Most leafy greens also contain a bioavailable form of chlorine.

            Oddly, salt and even sea salt which is very high in chlorine, is not a good source of bioavailable chlorine compounds.

INDUSTRIAL USES

Chlorine compounds are used to purify drinking water around the world.  It is most often used in the United States of America and parts of Asia and Europe.  Chlorine is excellent to kill many pathogenic bacteria, parasite eggs and other creatures that get into drinking water.  However, it is a very toxic way to purify water.  The chlorine is quite reactive and can combine with other minerals and especially pollutants in the water to form chemicals such as chloramines, which are highly toxic.

            Chlorine compounds are widely used in such products as bleaches, anesthetics such as chloroform, refrigerants, pesticides such as DDT, explosives, dyes, synthetic plastics, refining of gasoline, and in many other industries where it often forms quite toxic compounds, unfortunately.  Some of these persist in the environment such as DDT, a now-famous pesticide that helped eliminate yellow fever in Panama during the construction of the Panama Canal.

            Chlorine dioxide is sold as a germ-killer.  MMS or Miracle Mineral Supplement, is a chlorine compound.  It kills germs, but is also toxic and should not be used for more than a few days for this reason, as the toxicity builds up inside.  Many ‘oxygen’ supplements utilize chlorine as a transporter of oxygen.  These also tend to be a little toxic and are not as good for this reason as ozone or hydrogen peroxide as oxygen delivery systems.  Recall that chlorine is a messenger or delivery element.

Electrolyte and fluid imbalances – DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

            These are rare, as chlorine compounds are widely distributed in foods.  However, people who live on refined food diets might rarely  experience symptoms including blue lips and nails, twitches in the face area and elsewhere, and bone pain.  Other possible symptoms are ear, bladder, intestinal gas and irritability.  These are probably due to electrolyte and fluid imbalances that could result from a rare chlorine deficiency.  Since chlorine is in the drinking water, and is used to bleach wheat flour when it is refined into “white flour”, all of these are very rare.

EXCESS SYMPTOMS – Hypothyroidism and breathing issues

            Chronic toxicity.  This is far more common today in areas where chlorine is used to purify drinking water, and in industrial areas that are contaminated with chorine compounds.  The result is a drastic increase in heart disease and hypothyroidism.

            Hypothyroidism is caused by the replacement of iodine in the thyroid with chlorine, an element in the same family called the halogens.  Chlorine is one of the major iodine antagonists.

This is an enormous and serious problem today in all nations that use chlorine compounds to purify the water.  These compounds find their way into the drinking water supply, and contaminate the food as well.  This is one reason for widespread obesity, hypothyroidism, fatigue, depression and other problems.  Fortunately, nutritional balancing science can remove the chlorine (along with bromine and fluorine compounds that also cause the problem) from the thyroid gland and thus restore most people’s thyroid activity quite easily.  This is discussed in an article entitled Thyroid Imbalances and in the article entitled Iodine.

            Chlorine toxicity can also cause problems breathing, and affect all of the sensory organs – sight, hearing, and even touch.  It can affect memory, often by affecting thyroid activity.  The mind can also become disengaged or disconnected.  This is different than schizophrenia, though it could be considered a type of schizoid ailment in which one can believe one might “lose control of one’s mind” or a fear of going insane.  It is really a memory problem, not schizophrenia in the usual sense of the word, however.

            Other acute symptoms are heart palpitations, and nausea and vomiting.  An alkalizing agent may help, as the breathing problems caused by chlorine toxicity can make one too acidic.  Too much chlorine could cause an excess of gastric or stomach hydrochloric acid.  However, this is rare.

            Acute toxicity.  Other excess symptoms include chlorosis, a toxic poisoning with Chlorox and other chlorine compounds that can be fatal.  It occurs due to swallowing irritating chlorine compounds.  One can also be poisoned by chlorine gas, which is extremely irritating to the lungs.  It is one of the problems with chloroform, an anesthetic gas.

            Other problems due to chlorine are skin burns from bleaches, and the eyes are sensitive to chlorine poisoning as well by gases and liquids, especially, where they do a lot of damage.

CHLORINE SYNERGISTS

            The following substances increase the effectiveness of chlorine:  vitamins B2, B3, and vitamin C and minerals such as sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), hydrogen (HCl), and phosphorus.

Poor bowel control, dementia, low potassium levels and the brain

What to do with lose bowel with someone who has dementia and diabetes?  Low potassium levels can cause diarrhea. Email motherhealth@gmail.com if you have an answer as one of our clients have this case.

I remembered caring for a male client with pancreatic cancer and on dextrose (salt, sugar, water) in the hospital 3 days before he died. His liquid poop is similar to that of a newborn , towards the end it is so dark in color.

While some are constipated , our brain controls our movement and during the last stage of a our disease, we have poor bowel function.

What will the effect be when using activated charcoal and or potassium and magnesium rich diet of veggies in this scenario?

Some have good appetite while others cannot swallow. A client becomes eligible for hospice care when he/she cannot swallow.

Some clients in care homes are still able to swallow but immobile during the last stage of their Alzheimer that their family then decides to expire them with sublingual morphine.

Many times, even with sublingual morphine it takes more than a week for some. We trained our caregivers to be at their side, massaging them or just praying with them.

Remember that during the last stage of our lives, the last sense to go is the sense of hearing.

Connie

Is something in your diet causing diarrhea? – Harvard Health

Jul 12, 2016 – Diarrhea may be caused by a number of factors. When it comes to diet, foods that are sugary, fatty, spicy, or fried can cause loose stools or make them worse.…

Diet for Eldery Patients With Diarrhea | LIVESTRONG.COM

https://www.livestrong.com › Diseases and Conditions

Aug 14, 2017 – American adults experience on average one episode of acute diarrhea every year, according to The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Diarrhea, described as loose, watery stools, is a common health complaint that affects people of all ages, including seniors. Some seniors may …

Could mom’s diarrhea be caused by her dementia? – AgingCare.com

Dec 3, 2012 – My mother-in-law had the same problem for quite a while. This was when she was still getting around on her own. It took a couple of months to figure it out. She had a stash of Ducolax laxatives tucked away in a kitchen cabinet. The diarrhea cleared right up after that discovery! You just never know what …

Missing: potassium

Factors associated with irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in …

by B Fiderkiewicz – ‎2011 – ‎Cited by 14 – ‎Related articles

Apr 21, 2011 – AIM: To investigate clinical characteristics associated with the presence of irritable bowelsyndrome (IBS) symptoms in hemodialysis (HD) patients. …. Symptoms of IBS were more frequent in patients with a post-hemodialysis potassium level ≤ 3.5 mEq/L than in subjects with potassium > 3.5 mEq/L. Also …

Low Potassium: Hypokalemia Symptoms, Causes, Levels & Treatment

Learn about low potassium (hypokalemia) causes like vomiting, diarrhea, medications, laxatives, diuretics, renal disease and more. Symptoms, diagnosis, diet, levels, side effects, and treatment information is provided.

Dementia and Bladder and Bowel Control · Continence Foundation of …

People with dementia have memory loss. They may be confused and not know where they are. This confusion can cause bladder and bowel control problems or make the problems worse. People withdementia may have trouble with: knowing they need to pass urine or empty their bowels; holding on until they get to the …

Missing: potassium

Alzheimer’s Disease And Incontinence – Bladder & Bowel Community

https://www.bladderandbowel.org › Associated Illness

Alzheimer’s Disease is the most common form of dementia, which is caused by a physical disease of the brain. It is a progressive illness, which causes loss of memory, judgment and language. Between 60 – 70% of those with Alzheimer’s will go on to suffer from incontinence issues. Incontinence should not be considered …

Missing: potassium

How Do You Know that a Person is the Last Stages of Alzheimer’s?

https://www.caring.com › … › End-Stage Dementia & Alzheimer’s

Oct 27, 2017 – When a person with dementia reaches the advanced or end stage of Alzheimer’s disease, he or she usually displays the following physical and cognitive signs:

Eldercare At Home: Diarrhea > Resources > Health in Aging

Understanding the Problem Diarrhea is the passing of three or more loose or watery stools per day, or a definite decrease in consistency and increase in frequency of bowel movements based upon what is usual for the individual. (Simply put, diarrhea is when a person goes to the bathroom more often.

[PDF]Wrestling With Dementia anD Death – Dementia Australia

Wrestling. With Dementia. anD Death a rePOrt FOr alzheimer’s australia. PaPer 34 june, 2013. By PrOFessOr jenny aBBey …. They also often supply outreach palliative care services. Incontinence. Incontinence is the loss of control of bladder and/or bowel function. Palliative approach. A focus on comfort and care of an …

Alcohol causes gut damage with bacteria entering the blood stream

Eat whole foods or nuts rich in magnesium, potassium and calcium before drinking alcohol late afternoon.  Always have protein when drinking. Alcohol facilitates aging.

Connie

How Alcohol Ruins Your Health

By Dr Mercola

Acutely, alcohol depresses your central nervous system, which slows down the communication between your brain cells. Your limbic system, which controls emotions, is also affected. This is why alcohol consumption lowers your inhibitions.

Your prefrontal cortex, a brain region associated with reasoning and judgment, also slows in response to alcohol, leading to more impulsive behavior and poor judgment.

At higher doses, your cerebellum, which plays a role in muscle activity, will also be impacted, leading to dizziness and loss of balance. Over time — even over as short a period as one month — alcohol:4,5,6

Increases liver stiffness, which increases your risk of liver cirrhosis. In the film, after one month, the liver stiffness of the binge-drinking brother was increased from 3.9 to 4.9 — a 25 percent increase in liver inflammation that leads to cirrhosis.

The moderate-drinking brother fared nearly as badly. His liver stiffness increased from 3.9 to 4.8, so spreading the drinks out did not make any significant difference in terms of the liver damage caused by 21 units of alcohol per week.

Diminishes the formation of memories due to ethanol buildup in the brain. This is why you may not remember what you did while you were drunk. Alcohol also causes your hippocampus to shrink, which affects memory and learning.

Promotes systemic inflammation. The two brothers both had significant increases in five different inflammatory markers, although binge drinking caused a more dramatic rise.

Studies have shown even a single binge causes a dramatic rise in inflammation. In other words, your body reacts to alcohol in the same way as it reacts to injury or infection.

Increases stress on your heart, raising your risk for cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, high blood pressure and stroke.

Blood alcohol levels spike two to three hours AFTER your last drink, which means it may occur in the middle of the night during sleep. This raises your risk of accidental death due to choking on your own vomit and/or suffering cardiac failure or stroke while sleeping.

Significantly increases endotoxin levels. In other words, alcohol causes gut damage allowing bacteria to escape from your gut into your blood stream.

The film showed that bingeing caused significantly worse damage, suggesting one week between binges is nowhere near enough to heal the gut damage caused by high amounts of alcohol. That said, regular consumption also led to elevated endotoxin levels, suggesting 21 units of alcohol per week is too much, and “sensible” drinking limits likely need to be much lower. How low is still unclear.

These are just a handful of the physical effects of alcohol. In reality, alcohol affects every part of your body, as shown in this Healthline infographic.7 In terms of chronic disease, studies have linked excessive alcohol consumption with an increased risk for poor immune function (which raises your risk for most diseases), pancreatitis and cancer.

Potassium rich foods in the afternoon and sodium rich foods in the morning for sleep

Mechanism that Controls When We Sleep and When We Wake Discovered

Simple 2-cycle mechanism turns key brain neurons on or off during 24-hour day.

Fifteen years ago, an odd mutant fruit fly caught the attention and curiosity of Dr. Ravi Allada, a circadian rhythms expert at Northwestern University, leading the neuroscientist to recently discover how an animal’s biological clock wakes it up in the morning and puts it to sleep at night.

The clock’s mechanism, it turns out, is much like a light switch. In a study of brain circadian neurons that govern the daily sleep-wake cycle’s timing, Allada and his research team found that high sodium channel activity in these neurons during the day turn the cells on and ultimately awaken an animal, and high potassium channel activity at night turn them off, allowing the animal to sleep. Investigating further, the researchers were surprised to discover the same sleep-wake switch in both flies and mice.

“This suggests the underlying mechanism controlling our sleep-wake cycle is ancient,” said Allada, professor and chair of neurobiology in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. He is the senior author of the study. “This oscillation mechanism appears to be conserved across several hundred million years of evolution. And if it’s in the mouse, it is likely in humans, too.”

Better understanding of this mechanism could lead to new drug targets to address sleep-wake trouble related to jet lag, shift work and other clock-induced problems. Eventually, it might be possible to reset a person’s internal clock to suit his or her situation.

The researchers call this a “bicycle” mechanism: two pedals that go up and down across a 24-hour day, conveying important time information to the neurons. That the researchers found the two pedals — a sodium current and potassium currents — active in both the simple fruit fly and the more complex mouse was unexpected.

The findings were published today in the Aug. 13 issue of the journal Cell.

“What is amazing is finding the same mechanism for sleep-wake cycle control in an insect and a mammal,” said Matthieu Flourakis, the lead author of the study. “Mice are nocturnal, and flies are diurnal, or active during the day, but their sleep-wake cycles are controlled in the same way.”

When he joined Allada’s team, Flourakis had wondered if the activity of the fruit fly’s circadian neurons changed with the time of day. With the help of Indira M. Raman, the Bill and Gayle Cook Professor in the department of neurobiology, he found very strong rhythms: The neurons fired a lot in the morning and very little in the evening.

The researchers next wanted to learn why. That’s when they discovered that when sodium current is high, the neurons fire more, awakening the animal, and when potassium current is high, the neurons quiet down, causing the animal to slumber. The balance between sodium and potassium currents controls the animal’s circadian rhythms.

This image shows how light affects the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the circadian cycle.

Flourakis, Allada and their colleagues then wondered if such a process was present in an animal closer to humans. They studied a small region of the mouse brain that controls the animal’s circadian rhythms — the suprachiasmatic nucleus, made up of 20,000 neurons — and found the same mechanism there.

“Our starting point for this research was mutant flies missing a sodium channel who walked in a halting manner and had poor circadian rhythms,” Allada said. “It took a long time, but we were able to pull everything — genomics, genetics, behavior studies and electrical measurements of neuron activity — together in this paper, in a study of two species.

“Now, of course, we have more questions about what’s regulating this sleep-wake pathway, so there is more work to be done,” he said.

ABOUT THIS CIRCADIAN RHYTHM RESEARCH

In addition to Allada and Flourakis, other authors of the paper are Elzbieta Kula-Eversole, Tae Hee Han and Indira M. Raman, of Northwestern; Alan L. Hutchison, Aaron R. Dinner and Kevin P. White, of the University of Chicago; Kimberly Aranda and Dejian Ren, of the University of Pennsylvania; Devon L. Moose and Bridget C. Lear, of the University of Iowa; and Casey O. Diekman, of the New Jersey Institute of Technology.

Funding: The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Source: Megan Fellman – Northwestern University
Image Source: The image is in the public domain
Original Research: Abstract for “A Conserved Bicycle Model for Circadian Clock Control of Membrane Excitability” by Matthieu Flourakis, Elzbieta Kula-Eversole, Alan L. Hutchison, Tae Hee Han, Kimberly Aranda, Devon L. Moose, Kevin P. White, Aaron R. Dinner, Bridget C. Lear, Dejian Ren, Casey O. Diekman, Indira M. Raman, and Ravi Alladac in Cell. Published online August 13 2015 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.07.036


Abstract

A Conserved Bicycle Model for Circadian Clock Control of Membrane Excitability

Highlights
•Rhythmic sodium leak conductance depolarizes Drosophila circadian pacemaker neurons
•NCA localization factor 1 links the molecular clock to sodium leak channel activity
•Antiphase cycles in resting K+ and Na+ conductances drive membrane potential rhythms
•This “bicycle” mechanism is conserved in master clock neurons between flies and mice

Summary
Circadian clocks regulate membrane excitability in master pacemaker neurons to control daily rhythms of sleep and wake. Here, we find that two distinctly timed electrical drives collaborate to impose rhythmicity on Drosophila clock neurons. In the morning, a voltage-independent sodium conductance via the NA/NALCN ion channel depolarizes these neurons. This current is driven by the rhythmic expression of NCA localization factor-1, linking the molecular clock to ion channel function. In the evening, basal potassium currents peak to silence clock neurons. Remarkably, daily antiphase cycles of sodium and potassium currents also drive mouse clock neuron rhythms. Thus, we reveal an evolutionarily ancient strategy for the neural mechanisms that govern daily sleep and wake.

“A Conserved Bicycle Model for Circadian Clock Control of Membrane Excitability” by Matthieu Flourakis, Elzbieta Kula-Eversole, Alan L. Hutchison, Tae Hee Han, Kimberly Aranda, Devon L. Moose, Kevin P. White, Aaron R. Dinner, Bridget C. Lear, Dejian Ren, Casey O. Diekman, Indira M. Raman, and Ravi Alladac in Cell. Published online August 13 2015 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.07.036

Eating Fish May Reduce Multiple Sclerosis Risk

Eating Fish May Reduce Multiple Sclerosis Risk

Summary: A new study reveals eating fish regularly and taking daily fish oil supplements may reduce the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. Researchers report high fish intake is associated with a 45% reduced risk of developing MS.

Source: AAN.

Eating fish at least once a week or eating fish one to three times per month in addition to taking daily fish oil supplements may be associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 70th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, April 21 to 27, 2018. These findings suggest that the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish may be associated with lowering the risk of developing MS.

Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system that affects communication between the brain and other parts of the body. With MS, the body’s immune system attacks myelin, the fatty white substance that insulates and protects the nerves. This disrupts the signals between the brain and the rest of the body. Symptoms of MS may include fatigue, numbness, tingling or difficulty walking. The first episode of MS symptoms, lasting at least 24 hours, is known as clinically isolated syndrome. There is no cure for MS.

“Consuming fish that contain omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to have a variety of health benefits, so we wanted to see if this simple lifestyle modification, regularly eating fish and taking fish oil supplements, could reduce the risk of MS,” said study author Annette Langer-Gould, MD, PhD, of Kaiser Permanente Southern California in Pasadena, Calif., and a member of the American Academy of Neurology.

For this study, researchers examined the diets of 1,153 people with an average age of 36 from a variety of backgrounds, about half of whom had been diagnosed with MS or clinically isolated syndrome.

Participants were asked about how much fish they regularly ate. High fish intake was defined as either eating one serving of fish per week or eating one to three servings per month in addition to taking daily fish oil supplements. Low intake was defined as less than one serving of fish per month and no fish oil supplements. Examples of fish consumed by study participants include shrimp, salmon and tuna.

salmon

The study found that high fish intake was associated with a 45 percent reduced risk of MS or clinically isolated syndrome when compared with those who ate fish less than once a month and did not take fish oil supplements. A total of 180 of those with MS had high fish intake compared to 251 of the healthy controls.

The study also looked at 13 genetic variations in a human gene cluster that regulates fatty acid levels. Researchers found two of the 13 genetic variations examined were associated with a lower risk of MS, even after accounting for the higher fish intake. This may mean that some people may have a genetic advantage when it comes to regulating fatty acid levels.

While the study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids, and how they are processed by the body, may play an important role in reducing MS risk, Langer-Gould emphasizes that it simply shows an association and not cause and effect. More research is needed to confirm the findings and to examine how omega-3 fatty acids may affect inflammation, metabolism and nerve function.

Fish such as salmon, sardines, lake trout and albacore tuna are generally recommended as good sources of omega-3 fatty acids.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Funding: The study was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

Source: Renee Tessman – AAN
Publisher: Organized by NeuroscienceNews.com.